16th Expedition of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO)

An international team of aquanauts will travel again to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean to simulate a visit to an asteroid in the 16th expedition of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO).

This year's NEEMO mission will begin June 11. It will build on lessons learned from 2011's NEEMO 15 mission and test innovative solutions to engineering challenges allowing astronauts to eventually explore asteroids.

Join us in June for these live interactive webcasts with NEEMO team members

  • Interview with Dr. Stan Love, Tuesday June 12th from 1:30-2:00pm ET
  • Interview with JAXA astronaut Kimiya You, Saturday June 16th, 3:35-4:05pm ET
  • Interview with former aquanaut and Mars rovers Principal Investigator Dr Steve Squyres, Sunday, June 17th, 3:10-3:40pm ET
  • Interview with the entire NEEMO 16 crew in the Aquarius underwater laboratory, Thursday, June 21st, 10:55-11:35am ET

No registration is required and the webcast is free.  To join the webcast, visit http://webcast.challenger.org. Adobe Flash Player is required to participate and view the webcast. A new web environment will open on your computer with a chat interface to ask questions.

The NEEMO 16 expedition will focus on three areas: communication delays, restraint and translation techniques, and optimum crew size. The crew of four will spend 12 days living 63 feet below the Atlantic Ocean's surface on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aquarius Reef Base undersea research habitat off the coast of Key Largo, Fla. NASA astronaut and former space shuttle crew member Dottie M. Metcalf-Lindenburger will lead the crew. She will be joined by fellow astronauts Kimiya Yui of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Timothy Peake of the European Space Agency and Cornell University professor Steven Squyres, who was also a NEEMO 15 crew member. The NEEMO mission is sponsored by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program. For more information about NEEMO and the crew and links to follow the mission on Facebook and Twitter, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/neemo



H-C Alum Inspires Next Generation of Scientists

By Debbie Black

Published: Thursday, May 17, 2012, 6:28 p.m.

ALEXANDRIA, Va. — Several months into his role as the president and CEO of the Challenger Center for Space Science Education, Lance Bush is continuing his lifelong interest in space science while sharing that passion with a younger generation.

"I feel that I have lived a charmed life," said the Graceton native and 1981 Homer-Center alumnus. "I've been able to make the world a better place in small ways through my educational outreach efforts and through space exploration, and had a good time doing it."

Using space exploration as a theme and simulations as a vehicle, the organization based in Alexandria, Va., and its network of 48 learning centers around the country and in Canada and the United Kingdom strive to foster a long-term interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects and to inspire students to pursue studies and careers in those areas, Bush said.

The center reaches more than 400,000 students each year through simulated space missions and educational programs and engages over 40,000 educators through missions, teacher workshops and other offerings.

"Walking through these magical gates of the learning centers is transformative," said Bush. "You find yourself in Mission Control and the space vehicle, and you are one of the critical team members to make your mission a success.

"I am always in awe of how the children come out of the experience — energized, gaining a sense of accomplishment, seeing math and science as alive. If you've seen the movie 'Apollo 13,' it is much like that experience. The students are just settling into their roles when we introduce some incident, like 'oxygen levels dropping,' which sends them into an adrenaline-throttled race to save their colleagues. When the mission is over, they jump up, run to each other, high-five and in excited tones share their personal experiences. This inspiration carries through when they return to the classroom, because they now can see the context of math and science."

The Challenger Center was founded in April 1986 as a way here on earth to carry on the mission of the seven crew members who perished earlier that year in the explosion of the Challenger space shuttle --?including Christa McAuliffe, the first teacher in space. The first learning center opened in Houston in 1988.

Now, 26 years later, Bush is in charge of boosting the nonprofit organization's educational mission into its next stage. Since starting his position as CEO, Bush said his group at the Challenger Center has set a course for increasing the program's reach to millions of children and is exploring creative ways of getting there.

"This organization pioneered innovative science, technology, engineering and mathematics education, and now that we have established such a successful model, we are building on that in the next phase of our life," he said. "My team is currently evaluating digital media methods for a broader reach, looking at running simulations on iPads and digital tablets, and we are in the process of establishing a national learning center in Washington, D.C., to be a model for science and engineering education, teacher training and a successful example of how government, corporations and the nonprofit world can partner together to help society."

Bush credited fellow space enthusiasts and educators at the Challenger Center's network of sites with "always tweaking missions to include specific lessons or fun new twists." Working with the organization's core staff, he said, "These people are the ones who envision new simulations and implement them."

Bush said he is sometimes asked what his organization will do now that the space shuttles are retired and if it will change its mission simulations.

"For many years now, we have been flying (simulated) missions to the moon, Mars, a comet and one that features an Earth-centric mission," he noted.

"So, while our space community -- including political leaders, NASA, the space companies and all the other associated organizations -- is developing infrastructure for us going to these places and formulating a policy on where we will go, the Challenger Center is training the children, providing the inspiration that is necessary to drive exploration."

Bush pursued his own education in space science, earning a bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering from Penn State University, a master's degree in mechanical engineering from Old Dominion University and a doctorate in philosophy, technology policy and management from Penn State.

"I was very fortunate coming out of college to join the legendary group at NASA's Langley Research Center that was responsible for the design of the Mercury, Gemini and the beginnings of the Apollo space vehicles," he said. "When I joined this group, we were charged with designing the replacement vehicles for the space shuttle and other human-tended spacecraft."

Bush explained that each of the group's 15 members focused on one of the key design aspects of space vehicles but simultaneously had to be "an expert on the overall system design since we all had to work together to realize a design. The more senior people in that group were my mentors and earliest career role models."

Bush meanwhile became lifelong friends with younger colleagues who joined the Langley group around the same time he did. "We have all become very successful in our careers and now find ourselves collaborating again on national-level issues from our own individual positions," he noted.

Bush was an engineer on the HL-20 craft, known as a space taxi. It remains a viable design, though further development has switched from NASA to the private sector.

Bush said the HL-20 is recognized as the most mature spacecraft design with more engineering hours and expertise devoted to it than any other concept.

"The HL-20 design was adopted by Sierra Nevada, a private company that has given it their own name of 'Dreamchaser.' It is gratifying to see this design being produced. I have joked with friends that perhaps someday my children will be flying it - a sweet thought," said Bush of his twin seven-year old sons, Devon and Sebastian.

"I am happy to see so much effort and success in the spaceflight community right now," he added. "There has never been a time in our history when so many space vehicles were in design or existed including SpaceX's Dragon, Virgin Galactic's Spaceship series, Lockheed Martin's Orion, XCor's Lynx and so many others. There are brilliant folks involved in all aspects of these from the engineering and science to the business, and I have the fortune to know many of them and watch this up close."

Prior to his current job, Bush spent five years at Paragon, a company that designs various systems for space applications and that was included in the Inc. 500 list of fastest growing companies each year of his tenure.

"We got to work on some of the coolest projects, including the next generation of life support for space vehicles, spacesuits for NASA and specialized dive suits for the U.S. Navy, among many other projects," said Bush, who was the chief operating officer and then the chief strategic officer at Paragon.

"There is an incredible team of talented people at Paragon," he added. "I'm proud of the fact that we achieved our business goals, that the people there got to work on some of the most interesting projects in the world, and we all had fun doing it."

Bush participated in a celebration last summer recognizing all those at NASA who helped with the HL-20 design. "This event was meant to honor the team that designed the HL-20 and to provide a forum of exchange between Sierra Nevada, the company now building that design as the Dreamchaser, and the original designers," he said. "It was a great memory for me."

Bush said his upbringing taught him the value of community, hard work and strong ethics.

"I had great role models in my family," he said, including his maternal grandfather, Mike Rich. "He was an American success story, having emigrated here by himself and worked his way up and eventually building and operating his own grocery stores that were community-based. He provided food to many who could not afford it and housed those who were down on their luck, giving them meaningful work. He played a pivotal role in changing the welfare of the people of our community."

He said he also was inspired by the efforts of his parents, Richard and Helen Bush, to benefit their community. He noted his mother was a member of the school board and his father "served on community efforts to improve our drinking water."

Bush envisioned himself moving into space education and had earlier in his career taught young audiences about space science as he hosted a television show called "Spaced Out Physics."

"The moment I got my first job out of college, with NASA, I looked for ways to give back to others," he said. "I joined the Big Brothers program and at NASA I volunteered to mentor interns and speak at schools about the engineering and science work I did. There was rarely a moment in my career that I was not active in education."

Bush's volunteer work includes creating and supporting several national and international nonprofit organizations dedicated to youth and education.

That includes serving as a founder and board member of the Space Generation Advisory Council, which is a permanent observer member of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. He co-founded the Gabrielle Giffords Earth and Space Leadership Fund and founded the International Space University U.S. Foundation.

"I found myself loving these educational volunteer activities more than my day job, and my day jobs were really fun -- designing space vehicles, managing commercial development of the International Space Station, and managing and growing two companies to national prominence," he said. "So, when the Challenger Center folks called me and asked if I would consider taking over as CEO, there was no hesitation.

"Like them, I realized that my leadership skills from my space and corporate experiences teamed with my passion for education and making the world a better place made this a perfect fit for me at this point in my life. I also realized that it would demonstrate to my sons a dedication to helping others."

In addition to his interests in space, Bush said sea exploration is among his personal pursuits, as well as surfing.

"There is a natural cross-over appeal between space and ocean exploration," he pointed out. "These realms are both full of unknowns that tantalize us and call for us to explore. We, as humans, are incapable of sustaining life there without using advanced tools."

He noted that spacesuits and dive equipment both are designed to deal with pressure differentials, temperature and micro-gravity -- or, in the case of the oceans, buoyancy.

"There are even many companies, Paragon included, that perform work in both realms," he said. "Some of the greatest ocean explorers are avid space exploration fans. And, likewise, many of my space exploration colleagues are avid divers.

"I had the great honor to be invited to join a small, historic, private organization that brings together the world's top ocean and space explorers and executives. We meet twice a year to discuss and hear from other world experts on the top issues facing us in these realms."

Bush said scuba diving is an integral part of those meetings "to keep us in touch with the reality of what we are working on and to strengthen our personal bonds.

"Having a dive partner that your life depends on strengthens relationships, and stripping down to your bathing suit to dive among your business colleagues and sharing the wonders of the ocean brings you back to your basic human traits, building camaraderie. I personally am fascinated by the life in the oceans."



News Release

For immediate release
Challenger Center for Space Science Education
Steve Kussmann
700 N. Fairfax St., Suite 302
Alexandria, VA 22314

Science Educators Honored as “Teacher of the Year”

The Education Mission of Christa McAullife and the 51-L Crew Continues as  
Challenger Center Names Four Educators as Teacher of the Year

ALEXANDRIA, Va. - Challenger Center for Space Science Education (Challenger Center) announced today the recipients of its 2012 Teacher of the Year awards. Four elementary and middle school teachers were named as recipients, which recognizes educators who exemplify the spirit of Challenger Center's education mission and share a commitment to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning.

Challenger Center congratulates its Teacher of the Year recipients:

-  Evan Justin, Earth-Space science teacher at McMurray Middle School, in Vashon Island, WA
-  Randi Dotter, Science teacher at Cotopaxi Consolidated Schools, in Cotopaxi, CO
-  Melanie Canaday, Science teacher at Berkeley Middle School, Berkeley, MO
-  Rich Santer, 5th grade teacher at Bowling Green Elementary School, Westbury, NY

The recipients were nominated by one of the 47 Challenger Learning Centers located across the United States, Canada, Korea and England, based on their strong relationship with their local Learning Center's educational mission and their impact on student learning and the STEM education community.

The Teacher of the Year award recognition includes the presentation of a historical, limited edition Apollo 8 medallion produced by NASA. The medallions contain small amounts of pure aluminum carried into space by Apollo astronaut Frank Borman and were struck in honor of Apollo 8, the historic mission that culminated in man's first orbit of the moon.

The Teacher of the Year medallions are special gifts from the late Mr. Turner N. Wiley, a supporter of Challenger Center and former Chief of NASA's Communication Branch for Engineering at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. His gift is used to honor teachers who perform exemplary work in science education and to reward educators who are working in both classrooms and Challenger Learning Centers to cultivate the next generation of space science explorers.

June Scobee Rodgers, the founding Chairman of Challenger Center for Space Science Education and widow of Challenger commander Dick Scobee, said: "These four gifted teachers come from diverse geographic regions, teach different grade levels, and work with students of varying abilities. What links them together is a genuine desire to ignite their students' curiosities about the universe that surrounds them, as well as to convince them that their futures literally have no boundaries. All of us at Challenger Center are grateful that each of these teachers have found our Challenger Learning Center programs to be a fundamental component of their STEM curriculum."

About Challenger Center for Space Science Education

Using space exploration as a theme and simulations as a vehicle, Challenger Center for Space Science Education and its international network of 48 Challenger Learning Centers create positive educational experiences that raise students' expectations of success, fosters a long-term interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and inspires students to pursue studies and careers in these areas.  Challenger Center's network of Challenger Learning Centers across the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and South Korea reach more than 400,000 students each year through simulated space missions and educational programs, and engage over 40,000 educators through missions, teacher workshops and other programs.  To learn more about Challenger Center for Space Science Education, visit www.challenger.org.

Challenger Center for Space Science Education was created to honor the seven astronauts of shuttle flight STS-51-L: Commander Dick Scobee, Gregory Jarvis, Christa McAuliffe, Ronald McNair, Ellison Onizuka, Judith Resnik, and Michael J. Smith.



Challenger’s Presence at Space Shuttle Discovery’s Farewell From NASA’s Kennedy Space Center

Discovery left the International Space Station Monday, March 7, 2010 and its crew began prepping the shuttle for its final glide back to Earth. The shuttle soared through mostly clear skies over Florida on Wednesday, March 9, 2010. Commander Steve Lindsey guided Discovery onto Kennedy's runway at 11:57 a.m. EST. "This touchdown began the ‘beginning to an end’ for a ship that is called the baby of the fleet."

"I am so glad we got to land here at Kennedy, the home of Discovery," STS-133 Commander Steve Lindsey said. "As the minutes pass, I'm actually getting sadder and sadder about this being the last flight and I know all the folks involved with the shuttle program feel the same way." Bill Gerstenmaier, NASA's associate administrator of Space Operations, said the work was critical to set up the station and its crew for research.
"I think (Discovery's) legacy will be the future," Gerstenmaier said. Although Discovery will not go back into space, it still will offer scientific insight to future engineers, said Mike Moses, chairman of the Mission Management Team. "The vehicle itself is a science platform," he said, adding that parts of Discovery will be pulled from the spacecraft and evaluated for wear. The shuttle teams throughout NASA drew special praise for the longevity of the program and its successes, along with the workers' diligence. "Discovery was in great shape and I view that as a testament to the team," Moses said. "It was really a triumph today for the entire Discovery team." "We wanted to go out on a high note and Discovery's done that," said Mike Leinbach, shuttle launch director. "We couldn't ask for more."

It was an emotional day when it was finally time to say goodbye to Discovery for the last time from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Space shuttle Discovery departed NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for the last time with an early morning takeoff atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). Instead of rocketing off into earth’s low orbit, NASA's most-flown shuttle was on its way to Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Va.

Invited guests, members of the media and NASA officials were joined at the runway by members of Discovery's first and last astronaut crews for the emotional send-off. Being a member of the media and standing there on the runway just a couple hundred yards away filming, the experience will forever stay in my heart. I became teary eyed at one point. Watching launches was all I knew growing up in Florida and Discovery was special to me…her last flight eventually took off on my birthday and my dear friend Tim Gagnon designed the mission patch with the crew.

"This is the place where people have really taken care of Discovery for its entire life," said NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, a mission specialist on Discovery's final flight, STS-133. Before joining the ranks of the astronaut corps, Stott worked in a variety of shuttle-processing roles at Kennedy Space Center. "It's like sending someone from your family to go live somewhere else," Stott said. "Discovery's leaving home and starting a new life somewhere else."

After the Challenger and Columbia tragedies, it was Discovery that led the space shuttle fleet back to orbit. It docked with the International Space Station 13 times and supplied more than 31,000 pounds of hardware as the laboratory grew.

Discovery flew 39 missions, more than any other vehicle in the fleet. Its 26-year spaceflight career began Aug. 30, 1984, when it carried six astronauts into orbit on the STS-41D mission. The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed from Discovery's payload bay. The spacecraft also completed the first space shuttle rendezvous and the final shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir. Astronaut and U.S. Senator John Glenn rocketed into orbit aboard Discovery as a member of the STS-95 crew -36 years after his pioneering Mercury flight.

At Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility, guests gathered before dawn for the perfect view of Discovery's departure. The NASA helicopter was hovering, Discovery and the SCA stopped right in front of us for a photo opportunity before moving to the north end of the runway for takeoff. As with all ferry flights, a "pathfinder" aircraft, C-9, also departed prior to the SCA. The NASA C-9 jet flies about 100 miles ahead of Discovery to scout for the safest route between Kennedy and Dulles.

Designated NASA 905, the aircraft that carried Discovery to Virginia is the same one that first delivered the spacecraft to Kennedy on November 9, 1983. The aircraft is one of two modified 747 jets the agency used to ferry orbiters during the Space Shuttle Program.

Finally, the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft took Discovery on one last aerial tour of Florida's Space Coast. It also flew above the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Vehicle Assembly Building and Kennedy Press Site before making one more pass over the Shuttle Landing Facility on its way out of the area for the final time.

Discovery now moves her next mission to inspire a new generation of explorers, engineers and scientists and the remaining orbiters will go on display for millions of visitors at museums and institutions around the country. As NASA transfers the shuttle orbiters to museums across the country, the space agency is embarked on an exciting new space exploration journey. Relying on American ingenuity and know how, NASA is partnering with private industry to provide crew and cargo transportation to the ISS, while developing the most powerful rocket ever built to take the nation farther than ever before into the solar system.

NASA is still training astronauts. More than 6,300 individuals applied to become a NASA astronaut in the class of 2013, the second highest number of applications ever received by the agency. The 2013 class will join class of 2009 that just graduated and is even now training for the missions of the future. These are the first space travelers that could one day reach an asteroid, and they will pioneer the path for future astronauts to set foot on Mars. Discovery led the way.

Julie Aderhold-Roach, Challenger Center for Space Science Education



Sawyer Rosenstein's Intrepid/Shuttle Enterprise Speech

Town of Ramapo Challenger Center Flight Director Sawyer Rosenstein was one of the guest speakers at the Shuttle Enterprise NYC/JFK arrival ceremonies last Friday. Sawyer spoke for the Intrepid Sea, Air and Space Museum. Other speakers included NY State Senator Charles Schumer, NASA administrator Lori Garver, former astronaut Joe Engle, and actor-director-Vulcan Leonard Nimoy, among others.

Here is Sawyer's speech.

It is an honor to be here this morning and to be a part of history. Being a part of history is something the Intrepid itself has become well known for with its illustrious military career. Over the last six years, I have had an increasing desire to learn about space, specifically manned spaceflight.

It has become both a hobby and a passion for me. My podcast, “Talking Space”, allowed me to wave goodbye to the Shuttle program as a witness to the final launch last year. With all of this under my belt, I would have thought that I’d have known all of the obvious places to be for space history. However, little did I know there would be a connection to the space program floating in our own backyard.

On top of its history with the recovery of NASA capsules, the Intrepid has been host to numerous space-related events, many of which are truly unique experiences. Onboard the Intrepid, I have met men and woman of space history. I’ve met Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, moonwalkers. I’ve met International Space Station astronaut, TJ Creamer. And, I’ve met Space Shuttle astronauts, the entire crew of the final Space Shuttle mission, STS-135.

The STS-135 crew, the final Shuttle crew, marked the end of an era. Anybody born within the last thirty years knows of no other American means of getting humans into space. The Shuttle represented a dream for this generation. It became an American icon, representing the glory of spaceflight, a symbol of manpower, ingenuity, and patriotism.

After seeing a launch, very few dare not to dream of flying into space one day. Yet, those who are too young to remember this dream, such as my seven year old cousin Rebecca who is here with her second grade class today, might not get to experience that same thrill and excitement that I did. However, that is the important role the Intrepid plays.

Enterprise, along with the amazing team at the Intrepid, will keep the dream of spaceflight alive, and, the mystification and wonder which went through my head first seeing the Space Shuttle, can go through the minds of those too young to remember the awesome might that was the Shuttle, and inspire them the same way I was inspired.

So, welcome Orbiter Vehicle 101, Enterprise, to New York City, and may you continue to awe and inspire us all, young and old, for generations to come.

For more pictures, please visit the Town of Ramapo facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Lower-Hudson-Valley-Challenger-Center/84368498760#/pages/Lower-Hudson-Valley-Challenger-Center/84368498760


Challenger Center to Present at USA Science & Engineering Festival, Washington, DC

Visit the Challenger Center Booth at the USA Science & Engineering Festival at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, DC April 28th-29th, 2012.

When: April 28-29, 2012

What: USA Science & Engineering Festival

Visit the Challenger Center interactive booth daily. 'Make sure you catch the following special guests at our booth: Astronaut Richard Garriott on Saturday April 28th at 3:00 pm and Astronaut Anousheh Ansari on Sunday April 29th at 10:00 am. A door prize drawing will be held at the end of each day. The following activities will occur at the CCSSE Booth #3747.

- GCCE interactives from http://earth4u.challenger.org/
- Remote Manipulator System-RMS: A virtual environment to assemble a satellite with a robotic articulated arm
- Remotely Operated Vehicle-ROV: The participant programs the ROV in virtual Lunar environment to avoid obstacles and reach a target rock
- Cloud Activity

For a complete schedule of events, please visit the event page:

Visit the USASEF website for a complete schedule which features a “School Sneak Peek Day” on April 27, 2012 with public days on April 28-29, 2012.



Challenger Center Welcomes Discovery at the National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA.

Join Challenger Center for "Welcome Discovery" Events: April 19th-22nd, 2012 at the National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA.

When: April 17, 19-22, 2012

What: A celebration of the history and accomplishments of the Space Orbiter Discovery and its arrival at its permanent home at the Smithsonian’s Stephen F. Udvar-Hazy Museum in Chantilly, Virginia

Challenger Center Booth #34 providing the following activities:

- GCCE interactives from http://earth4u.challenger.org/
- Remote Manipulator System-RMS: A virtual environment to assemble a satellite with a robotic articulated arm
- Remotely Operated Vehicle-ROV: The participant programs the ROV in virtual Lunar environment to avoid obstacles and reach a target rock
- Cloud Activity

For a complete schedule of events, please visit the event page:

During the 5-day event, Challenger Center for Space Science Education Board members who were also Discovery astronauts will participate. A wonderful opening celebration parade of many former Discovery astronauts will mark the grand opening on April 19th. Come enjoy the passing of the torch as Discovery lands at its permanent home and Enterprise leaves to go to its new home in New York City aboard the Intrepid. Then come visit the Challenger Center booth and experience wonderful hands-on activities.



Moonandback Interview With June Scobee Rodgers, part 1 – Reflections

Dr. June Scobee Rodgers, an educator, author, speaker, talks with MM about her marriage with shuttle astronaut Dick Scobee, and the many adventures in Aerospace they shared. Watch the interview at moonandback.com Read more...

Challenger Center President & CEO is Featured Panelist at Goddard Symposium

Today, as part of the 50th Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium, Challenger Center President and CEO, Lance Bush, will be a featured panelist on Public Outreach and Education Strategy. This important symposium attracts aerospace leaders and members of Congress to present and discuss space exploration. Read more...

Challenger Center President & CEO Presents Prestigious Award

Yesterday, Challenger Center President and CEO, Lance Bush, presented the Advancement of International Cooperation Award to the commanders of the Apollo and Soyuz capsules, Thomas P. Stafford and Alexi Leonov, for their leadership on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project of 1975, at the 50th Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium. The award, selected by the American Aeronautical Society International Programs Committee, was established in 2005 and recognizes contributions to the advancement of international cooperation that have significant and/or long-lasting impact. Read more...